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Verifikasi, Validasi dan Inspeksi Pada SE

  1. 1. Jelaskan perbedaan antara Verifikasi dan Validasi (V & V), dan apakah proses Validasi yang sulit?

Dalam membangun sebuah perangkat lunak, langkah penting yang harus dilakukan untuk mendapatkan hasil yang terjamin mutunya (kualitas) pada perangkat lunak adalah, proses verifikasi dan validasi (Verification & Validation) yang dilaksanakan pada setiap tahap rancang bangun. Ada perbedaan makna yang mendasar dalam pemahaman tentang proses verifikasi dan validasi seperti diekspresikan dalam pertanyaan berikut :

–          Verification : Are we building the product right ?

–          Validation : Are we building the right product ?

Verifikasi dan Validasi (V&V) Boehm(1979) Verifikasi: Apakah kita membangun produk dengan benar? Validasi: Apakah kita membangun produk yang benar?. Dari definisi di atas, didapat bahwa :

–          Verifikasi merupakan proses yang melibatkan pemeriksaan bahwa program sudah sesuai dengan spesifikasi.

–          Validasi merupakan proses yang melibatkan pemeriksaan bahwa program yang diimplementasikan sudah sesuai dengan harapan pelanggan/user.

Arti verifikasi dalam hal ini lebih ditekankan pada kebenaran pelaksanaan proses rancang bangun perangkat lunak, sesuai dari spesifikasi yang telah ditentukan, sedangkan validasi lebih ke arah pembuktian bahwa perangkat lunak yang dibangun sudah benar (correct), sesuai yang akan digunakan oleh kebutuhan user.

Pada proses validasi perangkat lunak, pada tahapan desain lebih sulit dilakukan dibandingkan dengan proses validasi pada tahapan implementasi yang dilakukan dalam tahap ujicoba perangkat lunak (software testing). Hal ini diakibatkan oleh adanya tingkat abstraksi atau pemetaan yang lebih tinggi dalam pemodelan perangkat lunak pada hasil desain. Oleh sebab itu proses validasi pada tahapan ini membutuhkan alat bantu (tools) yang mampu mendukung pelaksanaan validasi secara cermat, yakni berupa metode formal (formal methods). Metode formal tersebut umumnya dilengkapi :

  1. Notasi matematis dalam bentuk tekstual, grafis atau tabular.
  2. Proses yang mendeskripsikan bagaimana membuat artifak perangkat lunak (software artifact) berupa : spesifikasi perangkat lunak, desain perangkat lunak, program, dan sebagainya.
  3. Tools untuk memeriksa dan membuktikan kebenaran artifak perangkat lunak tersebut secara formal.
  4. 2. Inspeksi untuk proses yang efektif dalam menemukan kesalahan program, dan “error” apa yang tidak terdeteksi oleh inspeksi.

Inspeksi perangkat lunak akan lebih efektif bila, menganalisis dan memeriksa representasi sistem seperti dokumen persyaratan, diagram rancangan, dan kode sumber program. Inspeksi ini dapat diterapkan pada semua tahap proses dalam menemukan kesalahan program. Construction aktivitas yang mengkombinasikan pembangkitan kode dan pengujian yang diperlukan untuk menemukan kesalahan dalam kode program. Integration proses integrasi antara modul-modul program sehingga menjadi suatu sistem yang lengkap. Testing diperlukan untuk menemukan kesalahan-kesalahan yang ada. Inspeksi ini dapat dilengkapi dengan beberapa analisis otomatis teks sumber sistem atau dokumen terkait. Pemeriksaan perangkat lunak dan analisis terotomasi merupakan teknik verifikasi dan validasi statis karena tidak menuntut sistem dieksekusi. Pada tahap ini terdapat dua tipe pengujian yang dapat digunakan pada berbagai tahap proses perangkat lunak yaitu:

–          Pengujian cacat yang ditujukan untuk menemukan ketidak konsistenan antara program dan spesifikasinya. Ketidak konsistenan ini pada umumnya dikarenakan kesalahan atau cacat program.

–          Pengujian statistik, dipakai untuk menguji kinerja dan keandalan program dan memeriksa bagaimana kerjanya pada kondisi operasional.

Menurut saya “error” apa yang tidak terdeteksi oleh inspeksi adalah Logical Error, yaitu kesalahan logika dari program itu sendiri. Ini adalah kesalahan yang paling sulit ditelusuri. Hal ini sering terjadi, walaupun logical error pada program namun masih tetap dapat menghasilkan output yang benar, apabila jika dikompilasi dengan hasil yang diharapkan ternyata tidak sesuai oleh user, dan baru terdeteksi/terlihat pada saat digunakan. Disini perlunya system analyst yang bertugas sebagai menterjemahkan user requirements menjadi system/software specification serta Quality Assurance Specialyst yang berperan melakukan VALIDASI dan VERIFIKASI proses dan produk akhir software.

Referensi

Mardiyanto,  M.Sukrisno “Validasi Perangkat Lunak Dengan Metode Hybrid Berbasis UML’,  Prosiding Konferensi Nasional Teknologi Informasi & Komunikasi untuk Indonesia, Teknik Informatika STEI ITB, Mei 2006

Rufman I. Akbar “Verification and Validation” Bab-22 Materi Kuliah Software Engineering, STMIK Eresha, 2010

http://cucusukmana.wordpress.com/, “System Safety and Software Reliability” , : akses Jumat, 15 Januari 2010

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